How to create a report?

Is there some documentation on how to create a custom report ?
A rough guideline is what I need at this time, I have no idea where to start.
Maybe interesting tools to make development easier (for me : on linux).

What I actually need is a report of the taxes : for a selectable period for the different tax-categories the sum of the amount excluding taxes, the sum of the taxes, maybe the sum of the amount including taxes (state wants this).
tax-category base tax total
6% 100€ 6€ 106€
21% 200€ 42€ 242€
Total : 300€ 48€ 348€